I recently had to summarize my approach to education for a class; here is the paper that resulted. Using Jeff Greenman’s nine components of learning as the structural framework, I develop in this paper my own philosophy of education, employing a hypothetical school of ministry located in Vancouver to elucidate it in a concrete setting. Two Appendices follow the main paper, the first giving a brief sketch of the Christian worldview and the second presenting my approach to the relationship of Christ and culture (Christians and the World).
“15Therefore He is the mediator of the New Covenant, so that those called for an eternal inheritance might receive the promise, since a death has taken place for the redemption of the transgressions committed under the first covenant. 16For where there is a covenant, it is necessary for the one making the covenant to proffer a death. 17For a covenant is secured by deaths, since it is never strong whilst the one making the covenant is alive.
18Therefore not even the first covenant was established apart from blood. 19For after all the commandments had been spoken in accord with the Law by Moses to all the people, he, taking the blood of young-bulls and goats with water and scarlet wool and hyssop, sprinkled both the book and all the people. 20He did this saying, “This is the blood of the covenant which God commanded you.” 21And both the tent and all the vessels used for ministering were likewise sprinkled with blood. 22Now it is almost the case that under the law everything is cleansed with blood, and apart from the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness.”
The majority—if not all—of commentators understand a shift in these verses from the ‘covenants’ to the more specific form of a covenant known as a will (both the same word, διαθηκη, diathēkē). The problem, as I see it, is that the meticulous argumentation the author of Hebrews uses falls apart on this translation—the parallels drawn are purely verbal (a death occurs in both cases), not conceptual. Yet, there is another way to translate this verse. I suggest that the author is presupposing what he has established and what the OT and NT teach, that covenants require priestly sacrifices to cover the transgressions of their sinful participants (v. 15, 22): only if the sin problem is dealt with can the covenant be valid.
Why then is a death required to make the covenant secure? Because the sinful transgressions of the one side making the covenant require redemption. It is not that “wherever there is a will, the death of the one making it needs to be demonstrated”: the idea that we receive our inheritance because of a will, contingent upon the death of the one making the will, is not found elsewhere in Hebrews or in the Bible—our inheritance does not rest in the death of the one from whom we receive it but in Jesus Christ’s receiving of the inheritance through perfect obedience and our participation in His inheritance.
A better interpretation is to read διαθηκη (diathēkē) as ‘covenant’ and understand the genitive του διαθεμενου (tou diathemenou, “of the one making it”) not with θανατοv (thanaton, “death”) but αναγκη (anankē, “necessity”): where there is a covenant, “where there is a covenant, it is necessary for the one making the covenant to proffer a death.” That is, the one making a covenant needs to provide a sacrifice. Why? because “a covenant is secured by deaths”: notice the plural, the one making a will cannot die multiple times, but one making a covenant can slaughter many animals (v. 19). Why do we need the deaths of animals, or in this case Christ? Because “[the covenant] is never strong while the one making the covenant is alive”: if it was a covenant between God and God this would not be true, but in the case of finite and sinful men and women, every moment the human partner is alive, the covenant is in jeopardy! Any sin could snap the covenant, so it needs a sacrifice so that no matter the mistakes they make in their life, the covenant is upheld.
The logic then makes sense: why is a death necessary? because finite men and women necessitate it. Why can we, then, receive the promise? Because Jesus has died once for all time securing for us the forgiveness of sins and redeeming transgressions so that the New Covenant would be valid and secure in the place of the old.
I recently posted another one of my papers on Academia.edu.
In this paper, the author looks at Jeremiah 34:17-22 in its literary context to better understand the passage and why the author of Jeremiah has put it in its present place. Particular attention is paid to the maledictory oath in 34:18-19.
I recently posted another one of my papers on Academia.edu.
In this paper, the author surveys the major positions concerning the heresy against which Paul wrote his letter to the Colossians. It is concluded that the data is best explained by the existence of a general syncretistic belief that mixes Judaism, Christianity, and Hellenism. The paper concludes with a brief reflection on mirror reading and how the conclusions reached in this paper should lead to a reconsideration of the the role of mirror-reading over against historical reconstruction.
In this paper, it is argued that Paul teaches imputed righteousness in Romans and that this doctrine has its roots in the Biblical storyline invoked by Paul in the introduction of the letter. Genesis 15:6 is discussed as the primary Old Testament text that anticipates imputation, but Habakkuk 2:4 is referenced as an essential step in the progressive revelation of the doctrine.
“She killed 38 old people because she found them annoying.” While on the bus, interspersed between minutes of gossip about who was taking whom to the prom, I overheard these words that broke my heart. Sure enough, looking at the news, I read a story about an Italian nurse who was being investigated for the deaths of 38 hospitalized seniors. As if that wasn’t enough to break my heart and drive me to pray for our world, I stumbled upon the story of a 10 year old boy being charged as an adult for murder after he beat a 90-year old woman to death for making him angry. She was annoyed, he was angry? That’s what it takes to drive someone to murder these days? Sitting on the bus truly heart broken and shocked by the utter disregard for those created in the image of the almighty God, I began to see the tendrils of a subtle heresy crawl their way along the edge of my sight. I read these articles and I was shocked; how could a person do such a thing? An innocent little kid killed a frail senior? People don’t act this way, we are supposed to be good; we are good people, aren’t we? Just as I was about to blame Call of Duty for desensitizing this young man to death and instituting a blood thirst in him, I realized the despicable, disgusting, wretched, grace-destroying heresy I was digesting.
Sitting on that bus, reflecting on the terrible effects that sin has wrought upon this world, I saw in my own heart the gospel of this world replacing the gospel of Jesus Christ. This “good news” that the world, and sometimes even churches today, preaches is a re-packaging of a heresy that has haunted man since the fall. Whether we call it Pelagianism, works-righteousness, paganism, animism, virtue, it is the supposedly good news that we are all good by nature. We are born innocent and pure; it is this world system that corrupts us and because we are pure, we can work our way to God. At that moment, I was not buying in to the lie that something I could do could earn me a place before God, but this is not the only heresy with the power to eviscerate the Gospel. In buying, even for a moment, the propaganda of the world that evil is the rarity, the exception, to the common goodness of all mankind, I was cheapening grace and casting a shadow upon the pride shattering truth of the Gospel. The truth that though I was a sick and wicked wretch who despised the one who created me, He came into the dark cesspool that is this world and died in order that I might enjoy God forever. Though I deserved nothing but hell and could never endear myself to God, the truth that He still gave His life for me and wrought new life in me. Doing so in order that, by resting in His all-satisfying grace, I might glorify Him forever.
Believing that man is basically good, that we can come to God on our strength, that we can do something to please Him, is the worst form of heresy; it turns our eyes from Christ to ourselves and lets us forget the all-encompassing need we have for Christ and the Spirit. I was right to be heart broken, deeply saddened, by the atrocities I read, but shocked? If I truly believed what I read in the word of God, my shock would not be that two people killed 39 seniors for foolish reasons but that more people are not doing the same, that I am still breathing, that those I care about are not being ripped apart at the pleasure of depraved men and women. The picture Scripture paints is not of good people corrupted by a dark world, but of corrupt and despicable people ripping apart a good world over which they were to have dominion.
Like all good stories, it starts in the beginning. God created a good and beautiful world; the crowning piece of His creation was a man and a woman, the first of a species formed in His image and likeness to have dominion over all the earth. But this man and his wife, who were created good with the rest of creation, rebelled against their creator and took for themselves that which God had forbidden them. As the representative of all creation before God, the man, in sinning, subjected the entirety of creation, and all his progeny, to devastating effects of sin (Rom. 5:12-15, 8:19-23). Not just in the mortality they now faced, but in the evil nature they now possessed. The first generation born into sin displayed this new nature by committing the first fratricide (Gen. 4:1-15).
The whole timeline of the world bears the marks off this cataclysmic event. The whole of human history bears the marks of man’s sinful nature; even in the outworking of God’s redemptive plan for mankind, we see again and again the sinfulness of humanity resurface. Mankind needed a perfect covenant keeper in their relationship with God, but time and time again these little Adam’s failed. God’s covenant with Israel at Sinai, intended to usher in the Abrahamic blessing upon all nations, ran afoul of the hardened and sinful (uncircumcised hearts) of the people whom God had called his own (Deut. 29-31). Until the coming of Christ, no man could uphold the requirements of relationship with his God, for his heart was sold out to sin.
Are we really that bad? In short, yes. God was so grieved by the depravity of His creation (Gen. 6:6) that He wiped out almost every living thing from the face of the earth (Gen. 6-8). He had looked at the hearts of man and seen their great wickedness, “every intent of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually” (NASB Gen. 6:5). All the earth was corrupt (Gen. 6:11-12). After the flood, all that remained was a one small family, led by Noah. Yet again, this new Adam failed as a covenant keeper (9:20-27) and mankind was in the same state that it had been before (8:21). All of humanity was still as bad as it had been before, all that kept and keeps it from being wiped out is God’s covenant promise not to wipe out the earth again (8:21-22).
This diagnosis is picked up as a resounding and dark chorus throughout the rest of Scripture. After Israel failed to as covenant keepers and God brought judgment upon them, Jeremiah wrote poetically of the state of man; “Can the Ethiopian change his skin Or the leopard his spots? Then you also can do good Who are accustomed to doing evil” (Jer. 13:23, NASB). Then in 17:9, “The heart is more deceitful than all else And is desperately sick; Who can understand it?” (NASB) The answer is, only God (v. 10). It is not just Moses and Jeremiah, the psalmists pick up the tune as well. In Psalm 14:1-3 and 53:1-3, David gives a scathing description of the blind and lost state of man. Not just content describe others, he looks at himself and, in poem of deep repentance, writes, “Behold, I was brought forth in iniquity, And in sin my mother conceived me” (51:5). From birth, this man after God’s own heart was mired in iniquity (cf. 58:3). Then in Ecclesiastes, “Furthermore, the hearts of the sons of men are full of evil and insanity is in their hearts throughout their lives” (NASB, 9:3, cf. 8:11). Maybe this is only the Old Testament; maybe Jesus paints a brighter picture….
Though the OT may seem to speak harshly of man, it pales in comparison to the diatribe the New Testament launches. Jesus, knowing Himself the nature of man, what was in his heart, did not entrust Himself to them (John 2:23-25). Speaking to Nicodemus, Jesus reveals that the state of man is so bad that only by a new birth from the Spirit will one even be able to see the kingdom of God, let alone enter it (John 3:1-9). If one thinks that this is not clear enough, that the references to the need for regeneration from Ezekiel is too subtle, Jesus makes it all the more clear in John 6:44; “No one can come to Me unless the Father who sent Me draws him; and I will raise him up on the last day” (NASB). Man is so lost in his hardness of heart that he needs the Father to draw him by the regenerating work of the Holy Spirit if he is to come to Jesus in faith. Jesus skillfully weaves in the expectation of a New Covenant act whereby God will enable His people, who are unable to keep His statues, to be faithful through the circumcision of their hearts, the giving of a new heart by His Holy Spirit (Isaiah 54:13 in John 6:45, cf. Deut. 29-30, Ezekiel 36:24-27 [alluded to in John 3:5], Jeremiah 31:27-34). Lest someone think this is a work God has done in all humans, removing their intrinsic depravity, the following verses indicate that all who are drawn will be raised up to new life in eternity (6:44-45, cf. vv. 35-40).
Later in the New Testament, Paul explains not only what we are incapable of doing, but what we were before Christ came and the Spirit changed our hearts. In his proclamation of the Gospel, the entirety of the book of Romans, Paul lays a foundation of man’s utter need for God’s grace in the Gospel: all men face the wrath of God (Romans 1:18). They face God’s wrath because they have all sinned (3:23), though they have seen God clearly revealed in creation, every man, woman, and child has rejected God in their unrighteousness to pursue their own debased pleasures (1:18-32). There is no intrinsic superiority for the Jew, for all races and peoples are united in their complete depravity and guilt before God (3:9). Paul unleashes a barrage of OT quotes revealing the dark and writhing darkness that lies at the hearts of men;
“There is none righteous, not even one;
11 There is none who understands,
There is none who seeks for God;
12 All have turned aside, together they have become useless;
There is none who does good,
There is not even one.”
13 “Their throat is an open grave,
With their tongues they keep deceiving,”
“The poison of asps is under their lips”;
14 “Whose mouth is full of cursing and bitterness”;
15 “Their feet are swift to shed blood,
16 Destruction and misery are in their paths,
17 And the path of peace they have not known.”
18 “There is no fear of God before their eyes.” (Rom. 3:10-18, NASB)
The predicament is dire, but just when you might think it couldn’t be any worse, Paul picks up this tune in the next part of the book.
Spitting in the face of fluffy pictures painted in our minds suggesting that Christ died for those who were worth dying for, Paul writes in Rom. 5, “For while we were still helpless, at the right time Christ died for the ungodly” (v. 6, NASB). So, those for whom Christ died were helpless and ungodly, but not only this, they were also sinners (v. 8) and the enemies of God (10). In 6:15-23, Paul speaks of life before regeneration and faith as life lived in slavery to sin, it was a master from we had to be released by the work of Christ. In chapter 8, vv. 1-13, Paul contrasts those of the flesh and the spirit, corresponding to those who are of the world and those who are in Christ. Of the mind set on the flesh, he echoes his early statements those in the flesh do not do good (vv. 5, 7), but he goes further and says that they are actually hostile towards God and are unable to obey Gods’ law (v. 7). Those who are in the flesh cannot please God (v. 8, cf. Heb. 11:6). In 1 Cor. 2:14, Paul echoes Jesus in John 3 and 6, writing that spiritual rebirth (here, being spiritual) is needed to accept the things of the Spirit of God. Lastly, in one of the most frequently cited verse in this regard, Paul writes,
And you were dead in your trespasses and sins, 2in which you formerly walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, of the spirit that is now working in the sons of disobedience. 3Among them we too all formerly lived in the lusts of our flesh, indulging the desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest. (Eph. 2:1-3, cf. Col. 2:13)
Before being made alive by God in Christ (Eph. 2:5), we were dead in sin. With the rest of humanity, we were children of wrath, sold out to sin and living in darkness. Apart from new life by the Spirit, we are dead; no wonder we are unable to come to God without His prior action (John 3, 6:44) or please him (Rom. 8:8, 11:6) without Him first acting in us.
This is the terribly bleak picture Scripture paints of man before being given new life in Christ. In light of all of the depravity that Scripture speaks of, my shock at men and women acting in a way that confirms Scripture’s diagnosis revealed my subtle acceptance of our word’s heresy. If Scripture is truly the Word of God and it says that every man, woman, and child is enslaved to their sinful desires, hostile towards a God they have willingly rejected, and unable to change themselves, if everything they do is tinged with the sin festering in their hearts; should not my surprise, our surprise, be that we don’t see more of these atrocities in our world? Though I was incredibly saddened by the events I read about, I was also driven to praise; thank you God for your common grace, that us depraved people do not do all the evil things we imagine or could possible do. We must not buy into this heresy of human goodness that our world pitches, the darkness of our world provides the only proper backdrop to magnify the glory of God in Christ through the Gospel. Only with this background do we truly grasp the breadth of what it means for Scripture to speak of the just, holy, and perfect God so loving the world “that he gave his only Son, that whoever believes in him should not perish but have eternal life” (John 3:16 ESV).
 Of course, God new all of this ahead of time; the whole of His redemptive works through His covenants with man was intended from the beginning to find its fulfillment in God’s ultimate self-revelation in His Son Jesus Christ.